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Les ressources en eau sont à un niveau de stress critique (FAO) - REMEDES
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Les ressources en eau sont à un niveau de stress critique (FAO)

Ce rapport intitulé « L’État des ressources en terres et en eau pour l’alimentation et l’agriculture dans le monde : des systèmes au bord de la rupture » met en exergue les défis à relever pour nourrir une population mondiale qui devrait approcher les dix milliards d’habitants en 2050. 

Les modèles de production agroalimentaire actuels ne sont pas durables 

Les modèles de production agroalimentaire actuels ne sont pas durables, fait valoir le Directeur général de la FAO, M. QU Dongyu, dans le rapport, soulignant toutefois que les systèmes agroalimentaires pourraient jouer « un rôle majeur dans l’allégement de cette pression et dans la concrétisation des objectifs liés au climat et au développement ».

Principales conclusions

Si le monde s’en tient à la trajectoire actuelle, la production des 50% de nourriture en plus dont le monde aura besoin supposerait une hausse des prélèvements d’eau destinés à l’agriculture pouvant aller jusqu’à 35%, signale le rapport. 

Cela pourrait provoquer des catastrophes environnementales, accroître la concurrence pour les ressources et alimenter de nouveaux défis et conflits sociaux. 

Actuellement, la dégradation des sols causée par l’homme touche 34 %des terres agricoles (environ 1.660 millions d’hectares).

Bien que plus de 95% de l’ensemble des denrées alimentaires soient produites sur des terres, les possibilités d’extension de la surface productive sont limitées. 

Même si les zones urbaines occupent moins de 0,5% de la surface terrestre, la croissance rapide des villes a considérablement réduit les ressources, polluant et empiétant sur des terres agricoles grande qualité, d’importance capitale pour la productivité et la sécurité alimentaire. 

En seulement 17 ans, entre 2000 et 2017, l’utilisation des terres par habitant a diminué de 20%.  

Aussi la rareté de l’eau menace la sécurité alimentaire ainsi que le développement durable à l’échelle mondiale et met en danger 3,2 milliards de personnes qui vivent dans des régions agricoles.

Des solutions à portée de main

La FAO estime qu’une montée en puissance rapide de la technologie et de l’innovation est indispensable pour relever ces défis. 

Elle appelle à renforcer les systèmes numériques qui fournissent des données de base, des informations et des solutions scientifiques pour l’agriculture.  

La gouvernance des terres et de l’eau doit être plus inclusive et s’adapter davantage, afin de bénéficier à des millions de petits exploitants, de femmes, de jeunes et de populations autochtones, qui sont les plus vulnérables et font face à la plus grande insécurité alimentaire, ajoute la FAO.  

Il faut également une planification plus intégrée à tous les niveaux et les investissements dans l’agriculture doivent être réorientés vers des gains sociaux et environnementaux, indique le rapport. 

Enfin, la FAO soutient que l’utilisation durable de ces ressources est essentielle pour atteindre les objectifs d’atténuation et d’adaptation au climat. 

L’utilisation judicieuse des sols pourrait permettre, à elle seule, de séquestrer un tiers des émissions de gaz à effet de serre qui proviennent des terres agricoles, a indiqué l »agence onusienne.

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